Key References and Links

The following links present relevant general and specific UK references which outline good practice and guidance about safeguarding children as well as the relevant UK children’s legal framework.

UK law (England, Wales, Northern Ireland):

UK law (Scotland):

Additional guidance is available from other sections of our site, please see::


Other useful sources of information

The NHS England Safeguarding webpages provide additional excellent links and contacts with additional pages on topics not covered in these web pages, e.g. modern slavery.


Patterns of bruising in preschool children—a longitudinal study
Kemp AM, et al. Arch Dis Child 2015;0:1–6. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-307120*

What this study says:
Bruising affects a small proportion of babies who cannot roll over.

  • Rare sites for bruising: ears, neck, genitalia, hands, in any child and buttocks and front trunk in early and premobile children.
  • Nine per cent of children have twice as many bruises as would be expected for their developmental stage.


Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
You may also find the following article useful on FGM, it is not open access but anyone with an OpenAthens account can view it for free:
Weston J Female genital mutilation: the law as it relates to children Archives of Disease in Childhood 2017;102:864-867.

Virtual Case – FGM (PowerPoint)


Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Infancy (SUDI)

Following three high profile criminal cases involving prosecution of mothers for the death of their child(ren) an intercollegiate (RCPath/RCPCH) working party produced a protocol for handling sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI) in 2003. This has recently been revised (November 2016). It has been extended to include all deaths in infancy and childhood. 

Sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood: Multi-agency guidelines for care and investigation, Royal College of Pathologists, 2016. 

(Please note that this protocol is for England and does not describe the process for Scotland and Wales).


You may also find it useful to refer to the resources in our Educational Resources section.

*This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See:

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